This article was originally published here
Sci Total Environ. 2022 May 22:156193. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.156193. Online ahead of print.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, the use of chlorine-based disinfectants has surged due to their excellent performance and cost-effectiveness in intercepting the spread of the virus and bacteria in water and air. Many authorities have demanded strict chlorine dosage for disinfection to ensure sufficient chlorine residual for inactivating viruses and bacteria while not posing harmful effects to humans as well as the environment. Reliable chlorine sensing techniques have therefore become the keys to ensure a balance between chlorine disinfection efficiency and disinfection safety. Up to now, there is still a lack of comprehensive review that collates and appraises the recently available techniques from a practical point of view. In this work, we intend to present a detailed overview of the recent advances in monitoring chlorine in both dissolved and gaseous forms aiming to present valuable information in terms of method accuracy, sensitivity, stability, reliability, and applicability, which in turn guides future sensor development. Data on the analytical performance of different techniques and environmental impacts associated with the dominated chemical-based techniques are thus discussed. Finally, this study concluded with highlights of gaps in knowledge and trends for future chlorine sensing development. Due to the increasing use of chlorine in disinfection and chemical synthesis, we believe the information present in this review is a relevant and timely resource for the water treatment industry, healthcare sector, and environmental organizations.